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주 예수 그리스도
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주 예수 그리스도[L W. 헐테이도]
Larry W. Hurtado
Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity
Eerdmans Co. 2003. 768 pages $55.00
Professor of New Testament language, literature, and theology at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Among his other books is One God, One Lord: Early Christian Devotion and Ancient Jewish Monotheism.
This outstanding book provides an in-depth historical study of the place of Jesus in the religious life, beliefs, and worship of Christians from the beginnings of the Christian movement down to the late second century.
Lord Jesus Christ is a monumental work on earliest Christian devotion to Jesus, sure to replace Wilhelm Bousset's Kyrios Christos (1913) as the standard work on the subject. Larry Hurtado, widely respected for his previous contributions to the study of the New Testament and Christian origins, offers the best view to date of how the first Christians saw and reverenced Jesus as divine. In assembling this compelling picture, Hurtado draws on a wide body of ancient sources, from Scripture and the writings of such figures as Ignatius of Antioch and Justin to apocryphal texts such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Truth.
Hurtado considers such themes as early beliefs about Jesus?divine status and significance, but he also explores telling devotional practices of the time, including prayer and worship, the use of Jesus?name in exorcism, baptism and healing, ritual invocation of Jesus as Lord,?martyrdom, and lesser-known phenomena such as prayer postures and the curious scribal practice known today as the nomina sacra.
The revealing portrait that emerges from Hurtado's comprehensive study yields definitive answers to questions like these: How important was this formative period to later Christian tradition? When did the divinization of Jesus first occur? Was early Christianity influenced by neighboring religions? How did the idea of Jesus?divinity change old views of God? And why did the powerful dynamics of early beliefs and practices encourage people to make the costly move of becoming a Christian?
Boasting an unprecedented breadth and depth of coverage — the book speaks authoritatively on everything from early Christian history to themes in biblical studies to New Testament Christology — Hurtado‘s Lord Jesus Christ is at once significant enough that a wide range of scholars will want to read it and accessible enough that general readers interested at all in Christian origins will also profit greatly from it.
Table of Contents
A New religionsgeschichtliche Schule?
1. Forces and Factors
Was Jewish Religion Really Monotheistic?
The Nature of Jewish Monotheism
Monotheism in the New Testament
The Effects of Monotheism on Christ-Devotion
Revelatory Experiences in the New Testament
The Religious Environment
2. Early Pauline Christianity
3. Where to Begin?
4. Key Personal Factors
5. Paul's Jewishness
6. Paul the Convert
7. The Gentile Mission
Christological Language and Themes
Jesus as 밅hrist?br> Jesus' Divine Sonship
Jesus as Lord
Jesus' Redemptive Death and Resurrection
Jesus as Example
8. Judean Jewish Christianity
9. Pauline Evidence
10. Paul's Acquaintance with Judean Christianity
11. A Conspicuous Silence
12. Judean Christian Tradition in Paul's Letters
Judean Christ-Devotion in Acts
Hellenists and Hebrews
Hellenists as 밣roto-Paulinists?br> Hellenists as Jewish Christians
13. Q and Early Devotion to Jesus
14. Untenable Options
15. Kloppenborg's View of Q's Christology
16. Historical Plausibility
17. An Inductive Approach
18. Is Q Peculiar?
19. The Argument from Silence
20. Devotion to Jesus in Q
21. Centrality of Jesus
22. Q's Narrative World and Jesus
23. Jesus the Polarizing Issue
24. Christological Terms
Religious Life in Q
25. Jesus Books
26. Shared Features of the Canonical Gospels
27. The Literary Genre of the Canonical Gospels
28. The Gospels and Early Christian Literature
29. The Gospels and Jewish Literature
30. The Roman-Era Literary Environment
The Synoptic Renditions of Jesus
31. Crises and Christology in Johannine Christianity
32. Jesus in the Gospel of John
33. Some Literary Observations
34. Messiah and Son of God
36. 밒 Am?br> The Son and the Father
37. Jesus as/and the Glory of God
38. Jesus as/and the Name of God
39. The Name of Jesus
40. Subordination and Distinction
41. Jesus and the Spirit
42. The Spirit and Johannine Christianity
43. Christology and Controversy
The Christological Crisis in Johannine Christianity
Characterization of the Opponents
The Christological Issue
Jesus as Heavenly Visitor
Jesus as Mystical Exemplar
Crises and Jesus-Devotion
44. Other Early Jesus Books
45. Jesus Books
47. Secret Mark
49. The Egerton Manuscript
50. Gospel of Peter
Protevangelium of James
Infancy Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
A Jesus Book
Jesus and 밫homistic?Christianity
Summary and Placement
Gospel of Thomas and Gospel of John
51. The Second Century — Importance and Tributaries
52. Christianity in the Second Century
53. Approach and Focus
55. First-Century Tributaries
56. The Epistle to the Hebrews
57. Late Pauline Texts
58. Confluent Evidence
61. Radical Diversity
62. Valentinus and Valentinianism
63. 밮alentinianism?in Irenaeus
64. Valentinian Innovations
65. Valentinian Piety
66. Nag Hammadi Texts
67. Gospel of Truth
68. Proto-orthodox Devotion
69. Finding Jesus in the Old Testament
70. The Fourfold Gospel
71. Visions and Revelations
73. Ascension of Isaiah
74. Shepherd of Hermas
Worship and Prayer
Outsiders and Critics
The Nomina Sacra
Jesus' Descent to Hades
Jesus, Man and God
The Divine Jesus and God
Bibliography of Works Cited
David E. Aune
A fantastic work! Larry Hurtado has written what may well prove to be one of the more important books on Jesus in this generation. By shifting the focus of discussion away from the historical Jesus and toward the function of Jesus in the religion of early Christians, Hurtado touches on crucial issues that have been largely neglected since Bousset's Kyrios Christos (1913). In thoroughly probing the role of Jesus in the faith and life of the early Christians, from the beginnings of the church to well into the second century, Hurtado asks the right questions and provides many of the right answers. This book will be extremely useful for those attempting to understand Christianity in the context of the history of religion.
This is a great and necessary book. We have been waiting for it for years, and now it will strongly influence New Testament scholarship, especially in the fields of christology and early Christian history. By remaining in constant critical discussion with scholars holding differing opinions, Larry Hurtado also shows the progress of research during the last decades. Everybody working in this domain has to take account of his Lord Jesus Christ. Many thanks to Hurtado for his valuable gift!
John S. Kloppenborg
Among his many significant achievements, Larry Hurtado reconceives Christology? as
Christ devotion,?which embraces not only beliefs about Jesus but also practices and aspects of material and visual culture. In this ambitious and erudite volume Hurtado analyzes not just the standard repertoire of canonical sources — Paul's letters, the canonical Gospels, Hebrews, the pastoral letters — but also the sayings source Q, the Gospels of Peter and Thomas, Infancy Thomas, the Protoevangelium of James, and various gospel fragments, achieving a scope and depth rarely seen in monographs on the topic since the classic of Wilhelm Bousset. Attentive to detail and nuance, broad in its learning, and careful in its arguments, Lord Jesus Christ is a landmark in scholarship on Christian origins. Even though one might disagree with Hurtado in certain respects, he is always worth reading — and reading carefully.
Alan F. Segal
Larry Hurtado locates the presence of the Christ in early Christianity with a scholarly exactness never before achieved. The story he tells is important for all Christians and for all historians of Christianity. This will be one of the most important books on early Christianity in the twenty-first century.
Larry Hurtado's new book is a stunning achievement. It explores with admirable rigor and clarity a central issue all too often ducked or evaded: How, when, and why did devotion to Jesus as a divine figure emerge within earliest Christianity? Hurtado has to negotiate many minefields as he takes his readers across a vast terrain. He is a wise guide whose judgment can be trusted, for his scholarship is of the highest order. This book is already on my shortlist of books of the decade.
This monumental, authoritative, readily accessible study clearly demonstrates that worship of Jesus as one with God emerged and flourished in the earliest church and in the context of dedicated Jewish-Christian monotheism (not in a Gentile Christianity that had broken with it, as the consensus since Bousset has maintained). Not just a landmark contribution, this work changes the whole landscape of the discussion.